1.REQUIRED QUESTION: The late 19th century was a period of significant change for African societies. What were the most significant changes facing Africa in the late 19th century? What roles did both Africans and Europeans play in making these changes? 2.The colonial period affected Africans and Africa in many ways. In what major ways did life change? Were those changes different or similar across space and time? How different was the colonial period in terms of particular colonizers, time periods, or parts of the continent? 3.Decolonization was a challenging but hopeful period of time. How was decolonization won and how did states attempt to decolonize (economically, politically, socially, culturally, etc.) following formal independence? 4.In recent weeks, we have discussed the challenges facing African states were independence. What were three of the most significant challenges of the postcolonial era? Why did these challenges occur, and African governments and societies respond to those challenges?