Biological Physiology Questions

part 1 Question 1 Consider that active transport allows for molecules to be forced into cells against their concentration or electrical gradient. Why would cells need to be able to do this? Discuss in a paragraph, listing some examples if you wish.  Question 2 What is the difference in DNA and RNA?  Question 3 Define in a short paragraph, the classification of carbohydrates.  Question 4 Describe in under 100 words the important to the body of triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids, lipoproteins and eicosanoids.  Question 5 What is the difference between saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats? part 2 Question 1  Examine and classify the categories of connective tissue and list up to 5 differences between each.  Question 2 Describe the beginning events of bone ossification using a diagram or sketch. Question 3  What is bone remodelling? Provide a 1-2 sentence definition and then list factors that can affect it. Question 4 Using the internet locate pictures and diagrams of epithelial tissue, both covering and lining and glandular epithelium, and note the different structures and functions. What are the functions of the basement membrane? Write up to ½ a page. Question 5 Describe the cause of muscle fatigue and define this term in under a 100 words. part3 Question 1 Name 4 structures that receive only sympathetic innervation.  Question 2 Using the internet, study and label 6 major sensory and motor pathways and tracts. Write 2-3 sentences explaining the function of each Question 3 Using the internet, study the structure of their ear. Explain how the ear plays a role in equilibrium and balance in one paragraph. Question 4 What are symptoms of an autonomic disorder and what may the disorder be? Question 5 Give two examples of controlled conditions in the body that are kept in a homeostatic balance by autonomic reflexes. Question 6 Why are the two main somatic motor pathways, called direct and indirect? Question 7 Write a paragraph of no more than 100 words on the importance of the cerebral cortex and its role in processing nerve impulses part 4 Question 1 Research and find information on ALD (adrenoleukodystrophy), its symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment. What happens with the myelin sheath in this condition? Write about ½ a page maximum. Question 2 Using the internet research what is happening in the field of nervous tissue regeneration. (Spending no more than one hour) What is the role of neurolemma in regeneration? What have contributed to the lack of success in neuronal regrowth in mammalian CNS? Question 3 Using the internet or resource materials list the 12 cranial nerves and their functions. Question 4 Stroke (CVA) is the most common brain disorder. What does CVA stand for? List the two principle types. Make a list of 6 risk factors. part5 Question 1 List 5 hormones, and the glands that make them. Then write 2-3 sentences each on their function.Question 2 Select three hormone-related diseases (other than diabetes) and write a paragraph on each, explaining how hormone levels/synthesis/recognition problems cause the illness. Question 3 There are two types of diabetes, name them and then list firstly 5 similarities, and secondly 5 differences between the two. Question 4 List the hormonal steps involved in the onset on puberty (FSH, LH, ACTH etc) Question 5 Give an overview of the endocrine system describing the general structure and function of this system. Question 6 Write a brief explanation of how negative feedback loops work, support your answer with an example part 6 Question 1 Draw a simple diagram of the heart and lungs, and label the associated major blood vessels, and the anatomical structures of the lungs. For each feature you label, write 1-2 sentences explaining their function in respiration.  Question 2 Using the internet or other research materials, define Starling’s law of the capillaries, Boyle’s law, Charles’ law, Dalton’s law and Henry’s law and write 2-3 sentences for each, explaining their application in respiration.  Question 3 The negative feedback regulation of blood pressure is via the baroreceptor reflexes. Using the internet or other reference materials list the steps involved and what happens in these steps (1-2 sentences each). Question 4 Hypertension is called the silent killer. Why do you think it is it called this and what other diseases could it lead to? List 5-10. Question 5 What are possible outcomes of a myocardial infarction? Question 6 What does the EKG measure Question 7 What is cardiac output? part 7 Question 1 Using the internet or other research materials, research four diseases of the immune system other than HIV/AIDS. Write one paragraph on each – the pathogenesis and how it affects the immune system. Question 2 Using the internet or other reference materials, describe the three phases of phagocytosis using labelled diagrams. Question 3 Using the internet or other reference material, compare and contrast cell-mediated and antibody mediated immune responses. List the similarities and then the differences in dot point format. Question 4 Define immunity in 1-2 sentences. Question 5 Where do B and T cells form? Question 6 Research vaccinations. List the four different types of vaccines commonly available and describe them in 2-3 sentences each. Then list 2-3 specific vaccines (polio, Hepatitis B for example) for each. Finally, name the first vaccine, and the person who gave the first vaccination. part 8 Question 1 What are the basic differences between pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, and internal respiration? Write two to three paragraphs. Question 2 In your own words, describe the structure and function of respiratory epithelium. Write up to 300 words. Question 3 Why are the various kinds of modified respiratory movements necessary? List 5 reasons.  Question 4 Describe alveoli cell types and their functions. Use illustrations to support your answer. Write up to 300 words on this answer. part 9 Your report/presentation must include: PART A: Your report/presentation 1. A summary of the functions of the urinary system, 2. A summary of the functions of the kidneys, 3. Urinary pathologies and pathogenesis, PART B: Your reflective learning assessment A list of issues that arose during the project that you either could not deal with or that were not essential to the project. • A reflective account of any problem-solving process you experienced. • A list of resources used, including human resources. • A summary of what you learned about the urinary system. Your final PBL submission must include:

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