Notes: Although there is a minimum word count of 2,000 words for this exam, you will find that it is likely going to require more than the minimum to fully answer the question. You may not copy or quote from any source. All information must be re-written in your own words. Answer all questions. Point value: 100 points. Read the course Style Guide for detailed instructions of structure and format. Exams must be submitted by the due date and time. Late Exams are NOT accepted without prior approval. Submit early to Turnitin.comDo not include the questions on your essays and exams.Question 1: Fertilization and Nerve Conduction (25 points) Describe fertilization and nerve conduction in terms of the properties of membranes and membrane polarization. Include in your answer:a. the development of the “resting potential” in the egg and the neuron and the events occurring during fertilization and an”action potential”b. the events that lead to slow and fast blocks to polyspermyc. a description of the differences between the wave of depolarization that passes over the egg and the action potential that propagates along a neuron Question 2: Excretion and Osmoregulation (25 points) Describe nitrogenous waste removal and salt and water balance (osmoregulation) of birds. Include in your answer: a. a comparison of avian and mammalian kidneys with special reference to the structures and functions of nephrons b. the blood circulatory pattern of the avian kidney and the function of the renal portal valves c. the structure and function of salt glands and the advantage for birds of a non-pressure based compared to a pressure-based osmoregulatory mechanism Question 3: Animal Life Histories (25 points) Compare and contrast the life histories (life cycles) of invertebrate animals from different phyla using specific animal examples.Include in your answer:a. a description of fertilization, cleavage, and embryonic development of eggs with different amounts of yolkb. the many advantages of life histories that include a larval stage for marine animals and for insects c. a description of the life history of parasitic trematode worms and the features that increase reproductive success even thoughthe life histories are complex and must pass through multiple hosts d. the advantages of asexual reproduction and the advantages of sexual reproductionQuestion 4: Tides and Seasons (25 points)Compare and contrast seasons and tides in temperate and tropical areas with respect to the positions of Earth and Luna, Earths tilt relative to its orbital plane, and insolation. Include in your answer: a. a description for the reasons for seasons b. how tides are produced and the reasons that tides are more extreme in temperate latitudes compared to tropical latitudes c. how tides affect the vertical distribution (zonation) of marine animals d. descriptions of specific adaptations of animals for survival in splash, high tide, middle tide and low tide zones.References Immediately following the essay, two lines below the last line of your essay, list all sources used in writing your essay to answer the question. Do not use in-text citations and do not use footnotes. Simply list your sources in this References section. You must have a References section with at least five references which you have used in preparing your answers: the course textbook, and at least four additional sources. If you do not include a References section, you will lose 10 points (2 points for each missing source). Be sure to include the References section with your submission to Turnitin. If you forget, you are able to re-submit until the deadline, but not after.