Civil Rights Research Paper

Your task for this project is to write a 4-6 page research paper on a topic related to the Civil Rights Movement.  You are required to cite at least 3-4 scholarly sources within your paper and record the full bibliographical information for them in a “Works Cited” section at the end of your paper.  You may use any format for your citations.  Use MLA  format for your citations.   Remember a research paper is not a report; it must deal with an analysis of a specific issue & should prove a specific thesis.  A thesis statement states the main idea of the paper and is generally found in the introductory paragraph.  The following topics provide ideas for the focus of the paper but they are not thesis statements.  Remember to be as specific as possible when writing your thesis.   Submission Guidelines The final paper must be typed and double-spaced. The link above will take you to the section on general paper formatting, and at the bottom of the page you will find links to other helpful sections on in-text citation, works cited pages, formatting quotes, etc.   SUGGESTED TOPICS The history behind & impact of the Brown v. the Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas case Blacks in baseball—How did it affect or mirror the removal of other barriers for African Americans in society in general? Evaluate the tactics & accomplishments of the Civil Rights movement during the 1960s. Martin Luther King v. Malcolm X—2 diametrically different approaches to the same goal. Which one accomplished more? The affirmative action program—what is it? How effective has it been in achieving integrated schools & workplaces? Blacks in the military—their contributions & attempts to overcome discrimination The urban riots of the late 1960’s versus the riots of 2020—similarities and differences Black-on-black crime—reasons for it; can it be prevented? Is white society responsible for it? The emasculation of the black male—deliberate? Can anything be done about it?  Why do black females seem to have an easier time than males? De facto v. de jure segregation—which is worse? Non-violent v. violent resistance—why the change? Analyze both forms of protest—is there a need for both?  (NOTE:  This can be part of a paper comparing MLK & Malcolm X). Black Lives Matter—a reform movement or a terrorist organization? The black power movement—devils or angels in disguise? Hip-hop—How did it evolve? Does hip-hop music have any influence on the rise of violence & other outbursts in social behavior? Police brutality in the black community—the more things change the more they remain the same (“plus ca change, plus c’est la meme chose”) Blacks & Jews—Can the broken alliance be fixed?   Remember, these are just suggested topics; you do not have to use any of them.  I do want you to think out of the box when you choose a topic.  Go into detail; don’t be afraid to take on a controversial topic or controversial opinion.  Always, however, remember to back up your opinion with facts.    I want to know the topic you chose no later than 7/14/20.  I would like to see an outline of your paper with a list of your sources no later than 7/28/20.  The paper itself is due 8/6/20. I am available to you 24/7 for guidance.   You may email me at or  text me at 347-276-2396.  Please include your name and the class in your text. I have included some guiding information as to how to cite primary & secondary sources. Term Paper: Format of Citations and References Introduction As you write your term papers, it will be important for you to document where you obtained the information cited in your report. Many of the references you use will come from published sources. Some may come from electronic sources such as the World Wide Web and some may come from interviews. An important component of your writing will be the effective use of reference material. This skill will serve you well in writing papers of all types, not just those required for classes. For this class, we will be using the documentation style of the American Psychological Association (APA, 2001) modified with italics substituted for underlining. This format is very similar to that of the Modern Language Association, and these are the most commonly used styles for publishing in the social and natural sciences. The general form of citations in the body of the text is to include the author and date in parentheses (as above) and optionally include the page number(s) after the date. If the author’s name was just mentioned in the text, it is not necessary to repeat it in the citation. The rules are described in more detail, with examples, in section 3  (Links to an external site.) . Basic Guidelines The purpose of the term paper is for you to learn how to do effective research on a subject and then write it up clearly, showing where you got your information. A research paper requires searching for information pertinent to a given subject, organizing it, and presenting it effectively in written form. In the following sections, we will present the way that we want you to cite your references in the term paper for this course. publications). typically have their own styles. Learning how to follow. You will therefore be expected to use the format set out below. In-text Citation to References When citing a reference from your reference list, please use the following conventions. Put in parentheses the author(s) last names, the year, and optionally page number(s) separated by commas. For one author, use the author’s last name and year separated by a comma. For example: (Walters, 1994) or (Austin, 1996). For two to five authors, use their last names separated by commas and with an ampersand “&” before the very last name in the list, then the year separated by a comma. For example: (Li & Crane, 1993) (Charniak, Riesbeck, McDermott & Meehan, 1994). For more than five authors, use the first author’s last name and “et al.” For example: (Walters, et al., 1992). For the date, use the year. If there are two references by the same author(s) for the same year, use letters after the year: (Walters, 1993b). If there are specific page numbers for a citation, add them after the year (Walters, 1994, pp. 31-49). If you include the author’s name(s) in the text of a sentence in the paper, you may omit their names from the parentheses as follows: “Austin (1996) includes valuable references to ….” or “The examples given by Li and Crane (1993) on web addresses …”. All references in that section should be complete enough for readers to obtain a copy for themselves. Your List of References Create a list of references, one for each item cited in the paper, in a section called “References”. This section goes at the end of your paper. The references are to be alphabetized by the fist author’s last name, or (if no author is listed) the organization or title. If you cite more than one paper by the same first author, sort them by year of publication, earliest year first. Do not use footnotes for citations. Single-space the entries in your list of references. Start at the left margin for the first line of each bibliography entry. Each additional line of each entry should be indented a reasonable amount. Separate the entries with a blank line. Do not number the references. Doing so means you have to renumber all the references whenever you insert a new reference. 4.1. Author, Date, and Title The general format for the author, title, and date in your reference list is as follows: Author. (date). Title. [the full reference, which follows, is discussed below] The following explains these fields. Author First author’s last name, followed by the initials. If there are two authors, separate their names with “and”. For three or more authors, separate all but the last author’s name with commas, and use “and” before the last author’s name in the list. If published by an agency with no author given, list the name of the agency. End with a period. For example Walters, R.F. Walters, R.F. and Reed, N.E. Walters, R.F., Bharat, S. R. and Austin, A.A. Charniak, E., Riesbeck, C., McDermott, D. and Meehan, J. National Bureau of Standards. Date Enclose the date in parentheses. Use a date sufficiently specific for the item. For example, give the year of publication for a book, the year and month of publication for a monthly magazine or journal, and the year, month, and day for a newspaper or daily periodical. End with a period. For example: (1995). (1992, October). (1995, August 30). Title If the title is that of an article, use the regular font; if it is the title of a book, italicize it. Capitalize only the first letter of the first word and proper nouns. If there is a subtitle, it too should begin with a capital letter. End with a period. For example, an article’s title would look like: Computer-based systems integration. and a book’s title would look like: The ABC’s of MUMPS: An introduction for novice and intermediate programmers. .4. References Found in Electronic Form Many resource materials are available through Melvyl and Harvest, which are the electronic access points for the UC Davis library. More are on CDROM, or on the Internet. These can serve as appropriate references for research reports and term papers. It is important, however, to acknowledge the sources of these documents, even though you may never have seen “hard copy” (printed versions) of the file(s) you wish to cite. This section describes how you are to cite references that you have obtained from electronic repositories. The basic form of your reference will be similar to printed references, but you will need to add some important additional information: the type of medium used, and the material’s availability. In general, if you wish to cite an electronic file, you should include either the term “[Online]” or the term “[CDROM]” (enclosed in square brackets) before the closing period terminating the title of the work cited. If you are citing a part of a larger work, you should give the title, followed by a comma, the word “In” followed by the larger work, and then add “[Online]” or “[CDROM]” as appropriate, followed by a period. Citing the availability of an electronic document should give the reader enough information to know where to locate the file and, if necessary, the specific portion of the file cited. Electronic documents can come from several types of locations: the Internet (e.g., world wide web): give the location and file name; the URL is sufficient In each case, you should give enough information to let the reader know how to access the information electronically. Generally, giving the site (Internet-style server name) on which the information resides, the name of the file, and the complete path (list of directories) showing how to get to it is sufficient. For example:  [Online]. Available: Samples of Complete References All of the examples given above may be summarized by citing a few references in the form we would like you to use. Here are some examples that would be cited in the text as (Crosley, 1988), (Essinger, 1991, May 28, pp. 97-99), (Armstrong & Keevil, 1991, p. 103), and so forth. 5.1. Printed Book Crosley, L.M. (1988). The architects’ guide to computer-aided-design. Toronto: John Wiley & Sons. 5.2. Magazine Article Essinger, J. (1991, May 28). Just another tool of your trade. Accountancy 108, pp. 91-125. 5.3. Journal Article Armstrong, P. and Keevil, S. (1991). Magnetic resonance imaging-2: Clinical uses. British Medical Journal 303(2), 105-109. 5.4. Interview Computer, Christopher C. (1996, January 10) Professor, Computer Science Department, University of California – Davis, 3:00 pm, Davis, California. 5.5. World Wide Web Address Austin, A. (1996) Annotated List of World Wide Web Technical Writing and Computer-Aided Composition Resources [Online]. Available: Burke, J. (1992, January/February). Children’s research and methods: What media researchers are doing, Journal of Advertising Research, 32, RC2-RC3. [CDROM]. Available: UMI File: Business Periodicals On-disk Item: 92-11501. 5.7. FTP Blood, T. (1995, November 30). Re: Brain implants: the Chinese made it! [Online] In Newsgroup: bionet.neuroscience, Available FTP:, Directory: /Usenet/bionet/neuroscience, File:, Date: Thu, 30 Nov 1995 20:39:35. Watson, L, and Dallwitz, M.J. (1990, December). Grass genera of world-interactive identification and information retrieval. Flora Online: An Electronic Publication of TAXACOM (22). [Online]. Available FTP:, Directory: pub/newsletters/, File:022gra11.txt.

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