Community Research

PART 1 : Data Collection, Measurement and Analysis Scenarios: A researcher wants to know why individuals in Community A have a higher rate of a rare form of cancer when compared to those living in Community B. To find out the reasons for the differences in cancer rates in these two communities, the investigator surveyed residents about their lifestyle, noted the types of businesses that were present in the community and searched medical records. The researcher found that the headquarters for the Toxico Chemical Plant is located in Community A, there is a higher rate of cigarette smoking in this community and residents tended to delay or skip going to the doctor for an annual checkup. In Community B, the largest employer was a department store and on average, residents did not smoke as much as residents from Community A. However, like individuals from Community A, Community B residents tended to delay or skip their annual checkups with their doctor.    Instructions: Read the scenario above and answer the following questions: What makes this a descriptive study? What type of data collection method was used in this scenario?  What type of collection methods are usually used in descriptive studies? Why did the researcher collect information about the lifestyle of community residents? What about the type of businesses present in each community? Medical records? Can the investigator establish that the chemical plant and cigarette smoking are the cause for the higher rate of cancer among those in Community A? Can the investigator establish that lower smoking rates and the absence of a chemical factory explain the lower rate of cancer among those in Community B?  PART 2: THE EDERLY Scenario: As a community health nurse, you are working in an outpatient clinic in a community that serves mainly elderly clients. This year, you noted that 85 percent of the visits resulting in hospitalization resulted from bronchitis, asthma, pneumonia, and influenza as compared to last year. At that time; the visits weredue to colds, sore throats, influenza, bronchitis, and pneumonia, in order of frequency. Maria Perez, a 73-year-old Cuban American woman has been referred for community health nursing services following her discharge from the hospital. She smokes two packs of cigarettes per day. She was recently hospitalized as a result of a severe shortness of breath due to an asthma attack. The primary care provider prescribed respiratory treatments using Albuterol via jet nebulizer every 4-6 hours as needed. Mrs. Perez lives alone and has three cats to take care of. Instructions: Read the scenario above and answer the following questions: What are the biophysical, psychological, physical environmental, sociocultural, behavioral, and health system factors influencing Mrs. Perez’s health? Describe at least three primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention strategies that would be appropriate in resolving Mrs. Perez’s health problems. Why would they be appropriate? What activities related to health promotion and disease prevention would you plan for the late fall? How would you evaluate your nursing interventions? What criteria would you use to evaluate care? PART 3: Become Involved Instructions: Choose one of the following ‘projects’: Identify a professional organization you belong to; how are they involves in policy development. Contact your local State Representative to discuss recent and upcoming health policy legislation. State who you contacted and why. What was the result? Use the Internet to research bills or legislation that is before the state legislature; share your insights. Examine newspapers for articles dealing with local, state, or national health policy issues; present the pros and cons of a specific issue.

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