Cultural Movements 

Overview: Paper 3 is an Academic Argument Essay of 6-8 pages using at least three exhibit sources (musical or other examples) and at least three argument sources. The final version of the paper should be a polished piece of academic prose.    Thematic Background: Art seldom if ever develops in a vacuum, and Jazz is no exception. Throughout the semester, we have encountered various genres of Jazz that arose during distinct periods in history. In order to understand Jazz (or, for that matter, any subject) more deeply, it can be very illuminating to identify the cultural, political, and social forces that were at work during the given period. Indeed, much of the research done in academia involves making connections among disparate disciplines in order to gain new insights. Paper 3 offers you the opportunity to conduct research that places recent Jazz in a cultural and social context.   Time Frame: Jazz in recent times, from ca. 1950 until today. Exhibits to use: “(What Did I Do to Be So) Black and Blue,” performed by Louis Armstrong and His All Stars: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2LDPUfbXRLM. Note that sometimes Armstrong varies the lyrics. This video was recorded in 1965, but the song was written in 1929. “Strange Fruit,” performed by Billie Holiday: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Web007rzSOI Holiday first recorded the song in 1939. “Driva Man,” performed by Abbey Lincoln (vocals) and Max Roach (drums), with Coleridge Perkinson (piano), Eddie Kahn (bass), and Clifford Jordan (tenor sax): https://www.facebook.com/keepingjazzvisible/videos/abbey-lincoln-max-roach-driva-man-featuring-clifford-jordan-a-live-performance-o/10155808198559136/. The album was released in 1960.  “Mississippi Goddam,” performed by Nina Simone: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LJ25-U3jNWM. The video is from a 1965 concert, but Simone first recorded this song in 1964. Other sources to use: “Black Protest Is Music. Learning The Melody Isn’t Enough,” by Terence Blanchard (Jazz trumpet player). NPR.org, June 18, 2020: https://www.npr.org/2020/06/18/879663904/opinion-terence-blanchard-black-protest-marvin-gaye-melody  “A Cri de Coeur From Jazz Musicians in a Black Lives Matter Age,” by Nate Chinen. The New York Times, August 7, 2016: https://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/08/arts/music/terence-blanchard-jazz-protest.html  BLACK LIVES MATTER – Over 3,000 ‘Woke’ Rap, R&B, and Jazz Videos for Activism: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL6A7D204236F68CD6  Black Lives Matter at Berklee College of Music: https://www.berklee.edu/jazz-gender-justice/black-lives-matter    Major Jazz Genres: These include; Cool Jazz and West Coast Jazz; Hard Bop, Soul Music, and Funk; Third Stream, Modal Jazz, and Bossa Nova; Free Jazz and the Avant-Garde; Jazz-Rock Fusion; Traditionalism, Postmodernism, and Acid Jazz; etc.    Assignment: In Paper 3 you will develop your own academic argument to analyze (objectively) and interpret (subjectively) at least three exhibits with special reference to the time period and musical, social, and/or cultural context in which they were created, with the help of at least three other argument sources.    Essential Steps: To execute this assignment successfully, you must (1) advance a position or claim of your own; (2) summarize the situation, argument, or position to which you are responding; and (3) support your position or claim through analysis and interpretation of particular exhibit sources (musical or other examples). Length of Final Version: 6-8 pages, not counting the Annotated Bibliography.   Annotated Bibliography: You should always think carefully about each source that you use and choose only those sources that are reliable, of high quality, and that truly help you prove the claim made in your thesis statement. In order to encourage you to do this, you will be asked to create an Annotated Bibliography. An Annotated Bibliography starts out like a Works Cited page, but after each source that you list, you will add several sentences to explain why this source is important, and how it is relevant to your thesis.

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