HPV Infections in Women

Please reply to the discussion posts. Sources have to be less than three years old and in APA format NO PLAGARISM Use scholarly sources, such as journal articles found from pubmed the first post to respond to: In clinics with female gynecological patients who are sexually active (P), does the clinic administration rate for Gardasil 9 in the clinic male population who are sexually active (I) compared to the clinic’s non-vaccinated sexually active males (C) , result in lower rates of HPV infections in the clinic (O) over a year period(T)? Why was the study done? I have found an article on HPV vaccines in male patients which pertains to my above PICOT question. This study was done to see if the Gardasil9 vaccination rate in men affected the number of HPV infections in women. The article gave pros and cons to the vaccine, as well as a tentative plan for some universities to have if students were seeking information on HPV and the Gardasil9 vaccine. What is the sample size? The data from the sample was among two age groups; preteen and college age as well as a small group of when young men became sexually active. ‘The HPV vaccination of males has largely focused on the pre-college populations (CDC, 2011); as of 2013, only 33.6% of males 13-17 years of age have initiated the three-dose series’ (Cunningham-Erves, Talbott 2015). ‘With regards to male sex initiation, a relatively small percentage (14%) reported sex participation before their 15nd birthday. The age of first onset of sexual activity for the majority of US males is approximately 17 years of age; and most adolescents are less likely to use contraception’ (Cunningham-Erves, Talbott 2015). Are instruments of the variables in the study clearly defined and reliable? This study looked at the prevalence of HPV and how the vaccination rate in males plays a large part in the infection rates in females. The variables are male college students who are sexually active. How was the data analyzed? The data was analyzed by the number of new HPV infections among college students. Were there any unusual events during the study? Unusual events included men who have sex with men; not that they are not contract and HPV infection, but women are routinely screened for cervical cancer and men are not. ‘The HPV vaccine is recommended for distribution to college males ages 17-21; college males ages 22-26 particularly those that identify as gay, bisexual, and/or are immunocompromised’ (Cunningham-Erves, Talbott 2015). How do the results fit in with previous research in this area? The results showed that the increase in the number of vaccinated men with Gardasil9 did decrease the prevalence of HPV infections in women. ‘HPV vaccination is a breakthrough in research for the prevention of HPV and its’ associated diseases among males and females’ (Cunningham-Erves, Talbott 2015). What are the implications of the research for clinical practice? The implication of the research is to see if vaccinated males with Gardasil9 will decrease the risk of women developing cervical cancer. Since HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection, a vaccine is an awesome way to lower the risk of contraction as well as protect males and females against HPV linked cancers. the second post to respond to: Purpose of the study The main reason why this study was conducted was to “evaluate the secondary impact of a multilevel, child-focused, obesity intervention on food-related behaviors (acquisition, preparation, fruit, and vegetable (FV) consumption) on youths’ primary caregivers.” The study utilized B’More Healthy Communities for Kids (BHCK) as a prevention intervention. It took place in Baltimore, MD, USA. Through this program, researchers hypothesized that caregivers would improve due to environmental changes. The findings of the study were meant to be used in coming up with an obesity prevention plan and help in the elimination of health issues related to childhood obesity (Trude, Surkan, Steeves, Porter & Gittelsohn, 2019). Sample size The study randomly selected BHCK zones, from which it recruited a sample of adult caregivers and their children. The recruitment target recreational centers and around stores within a diameter of 2.4 kilometers. The eligibility of participants depended on the household level. A caregiver was required to be 18 years and above with at least one child aged 9-15 years. Moreover, one must have lived in the same location for at least one month and not planning to move in the next two years. The baseline data was collected using two waves, with wave one consisting of 298 adult caregivers and wave 2 consisting of 235 caregivers. Each adult caregiver together with their children received a gift card after every pre and post-intervention interview. In my view, the sample size and criteria used were sufficient and highly contributed to concluding the impact of a multilevel childhood obesity prevention intervention (Trude et al., 2019). Variables The dependent and independent variables of this study were clearly defined and reliable. The researchers consistently applied them throughout the study and measured what they were targeted. The independent variables for the study were African American caregivers over the age of 18 years with at least one with children aged between 9-25 years. Moreover, the caregivers were supposed to have lived in the same location for at least one month and not anticipating moving out for the next one year. The dependent variables were healthful food acquisition, preparation, and fruit and vegetable consumption (Trude et al., 2019). Data analysis All data analyses were conducted using the statistical software package Stata Version 13.1. Descriptive statistics were utilized to characterize the study sample at baseline by the study group assignment. Additionally, the study also tested a continuous variable to get the differences between the intervention and comparison groups. This was done using the independent tow tailed t-test while x2 test was used for categorical variables. The study also utilized graphs and tables to give a visual aid in interpreting the data (Trude et al., 2019). Unusual events during the study The study reported a null impact of BHCK intervention on food-related behaviors of caregivers. No other significant findings were reported from the study. Contribution to the body of research Mixed results have been reported among the few childhood obesity interventions that were based on behavioral change at the caregiver level. However, many of the studies are attributed to a null effect. Therefore, this study helped cement on the “null impact” finding as reported by other researchers. This would, therefore, help care providers and other researchers in making evidence-based decisions (Trude et al., 2019). . Implications of the research for clinical practice The finding of this study is that BHCK intervention at the adult care level does not have a significant effect on food acquisition, home food preparation, and daily consumption of FV compared to their counterparts. This finding can help care providers and researchers in making more effective interventions and care plans when addressing childhood obesity (Trude et al., 2019). References Trude, A. C., Surkan, P. J., Steeves, E. A., Porter, K. P., & Gittelsohn, J. (2019). The impact of a multilevel childhood obesity prevention intervention on healthful food acquisition, preparation, and fruit and vegetable consumption on African-American adult caregivers. Public health nutrition, 22(7), 1300-1315.

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