Innovations in Astronomy

Describe the innovations in astronomy made by Copernicus, Tycho, Kepler, and Galileo (from the book Galileo Galilei, The Essential Galileo). What did each contribute, observationally and intellectually, to the shift from the Ptolemaic model of the world to the modern heliocentric solar system within a vast universe? Also, address the ways in which each was conservative, and why—that is, explain where they remained attached to earlier ideas in astronomy. What problems did they leave for later astronomers to resolve? Formatting: Your paper must be typed, double-spaced, with at least 1″ margins on all sides. The pages must be numbered. You do not need a separate title page; your name and the date you finished the paper should be typed on the upper left corner of the first page, followed by a blank line, the title of the paper, another blank line, and the beginning of the paper.  Sources and citation: Your paper should use at least four quotations from the sources. Quote no more than three lines for each quotation. It should also use at least four citations without quotations (in other words, paraphrase). You should use footnotes to cite sources, including lecture notes. Do not put notes in footers. Put them in footnotes. For more information on this check:

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