Japanese Economic System

Which form of keiretsu is commonly criticized by foreign nations as unfair to competitors? A. Vertical keiretsu B. Horizontal keiretsu Which of the following is NOT an advantage of the Japanese economic system? A. Long-term financing helps firms avoid short-term market pressures B. High immigration rates encourage a dynamic labor market C. Lifetime employment builds worker loyalty and improves ties between workers and management D. Keiretsu allows firms to benefit from long-term contracts with suppliers and buyers Which Japanese system encourages communication from lower levels in the firm to higher management? A. Kanban B. Ringi-sho C. Nemawashi D. Zaibatsu At the time our book was written, 90 percent of Japan’s trade surplus with the US came from four sectors. Which of the following sectors is NOT one of these four surplus sectors? A. Automobiles B. Construction equipment C. Semiconductors D. Consumer electronics According to our authors, what is the greatest challenge facing the Japanese economy? A. High tariffs on imports and exports B. Declining life expectancy C. Excessive wage inequality D. Declining population

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