Neurogenesis,

RESOND TO FOUR CLASSMATES ABOUT DISCUSSIONSDISCUSSION ONE RESONSENeurogenesis, the growth and regrowth of neurons, occurs during development and can also occur in response to environmental stimuli. Unfortunately, neurogenesis in the central nervous system of humans is limited in the brain’sability to recover after damage. Recent research indicates that more extensive neurogenesis may be possible in the central nervous system through the use of stem cells.RESPOND TO CLASSMATE ONE: The benefits of using stem cells in the neurogenesis are far-reaching. Stems cells are always undifferentiated and can result in many cells. Therefore, it can be beneficial to patients. However, one of the major effects of using this method is that it has the potential of causing Parkinson’s disease. Parkinson’s disease occurs when the dopamine gradually dies. Therefore, movement is impaired. The symptoms exhibited by the Parkinson’s disease is mostly due to the loss of the dopamine, which is a chemical substance in the central nervous system. Studies have shown that depleted hippocampal neurogenesis has the potential of leading to an increase in motivation to seek cocaine-related cues (Barry & McGinty, 2017). The use of stem cells in the neurogenesis can be vital and holds the benefits of reversing the conditions of different people (Gonçalves, Schafer & Gage, 2016). However, it is unethical owing to the possibility of Parkinson’s disease.  It is always unethical to cause another condition while managing other conditions. In healthcare, there should be the maintenance of the principles of ethics, including autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, as well as justice. The application of the stem cells is against the principle of nonmaleficence. The principle of nonmaleficence requires the practitioners to inflict harm on their patients. When individual patients are subjected to stem cells that result in Parkinson’s disease, then there is a contravention of the principle of nonmaleficence. Despite the benefits that are enjoyed and the treatments offered, the resulting of Parkinson’s disease will cause the individuals to experience the pain due to the tremors or lack of movements as Parkinson’s disease affects the patient causing pain. The stem cells are always undifferentiated, and they have the ability to giving rise to indefinite multiple cells.RESPOND TO CLASSMATE TWO: Once the brain has been damaged, although it has the potential to generate new neurons and repair areas that have been damaged, the damage cannot be reversed (Wilson, 2013).  Most research in stem cell neurogenesis has been focused on treating degenerative diseases.  Early research in this area was directed towards limiting damage upon occurrence.  In more recent literature, research has focused on identifying if cells that influence new neurons can be persuaded to restore brain function (Panchision, 2016).  With advancing knowledge and technology, comes new challenges and ethical implications.  The possibilities of neurogenesis in the central nervous system are promising and hold the potential of helping in a multitude of neurological diseases, however that brings up ethical implications as the human brain is the object of study for transplantation and manipulation (Ramos- Zúñiga et al., 2012).  The use of stem cells in the treatment of disorders have been used in embryonic stem cell research in finding treatment for almost 200 diseases liked to cancer (Foti, 2018).  This research can identify differences between cancer stem cells and normal stem cells thus providing more information regarding possible treatment options in the future.  Application of this research in adults has the potential to be a key part of therapy to repair pathological processes for spinal cord injuries, multiple sclerosis, Huntington, Alzheimer’s, and Parkinson’s disease (Anisimov, 2009).  All of the risks potentially involved with the clinical application of neural stem cells have yet to be fully researched, especially the long-term followups.  There have been some risks like the possibility of tumors in Parkinson’s patients (Anisimov, 2009), therefore research in this area should still be very alert and cautious of ethical implications morally and socially, and of technical implications and risks regarding the health of patients (Ramos-Zúñiga, 2012).DISCUSSION TWO RESONSE What does amnesia tell us about the neurological process underlying memory? Does Amnesia research help to advance our knowledge of learning and memory? If so, explain. RESPOND TO CLASSMATE THREE: Amnesia, the most common form of memory disorder, is caused by damage to the hippocampus (Wilson, 2013). Typically, in amnesia cases, the patient can remember things from their childhood, for example, but cannot form new memories or cannot remember events that happened before the brain injury (Wilson, 2013).  What this tells us about the neurological processes of memory is that all memories are not stored in one part of the brain.  The best example of this theory is the case of a patient in which the hippocampus was removed, and the patient was still able to recall memories from his youth (James & MacKay, 2001).  This tells us that memory can be “fractionated into separable systems or abilities” within the brain (Allen, 2018).  Amnesia research does help to advocate our knowledge of learning and memory because through this research it has become more clear that learning is the process of integrating new knowledge as a result of our experiences and the results are coded and saved as memories (Allen, 2018).  So essentially, without memory, there would be no learning. 

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