The answers should be written using APA format, including citing your sources. Case Study 1: Pregnant Women Tiffani Hobson, a 17-year-old vocational high school student, comes to the clinic where you practice nursing, with her mother. Tiffani reports she has missed two menstrual cycles. Her last known period started on March 4, 2019, and was normal. Each time you ask Tiffani a question, she apprehensively looks at her mother before answering nervously. You ask Tiffanis mother to step outside for a few minutes; reluctantly, her mother leaves. Before going any further, what might the nurse do to alleviate Tiffanis apparent anxiety? What are some key topics to ask about when taking a health history with a possibly pregnant teenager? Tiffanis pregnancy test results are positive. Use Nageles rule to determine her due date. Case Study 2: Newborns and Infants Tammy Rutledge, an 18-year-old college student, gave birth 2 days ago to Sarah, her first child. Sarahs father, 23-year-old Nathan English, has visited consistently throughout the hospitalization. Today, Ms. Rutledge and Sarah are being discharged, with Mr. English transporting them home. Sarah was delivered vaginally with no complications. Ms. Rutledge has been successfully breastfeeding Sarah, and they will be living with Ms. Rutledges parents. All family members currently seem happy and committed to Sarahs care. What are the primary areas of focus for anticipatory guidance regarding newborns? What life-saving course should Ms. Rutledge take to protect Sarahs safety? How should Ms. Rutledge and Mr. Englishs parents become involved in the education process? Case Study 3: Children and Adolescents Shonna Robinson, a 15-year-old high school freshman, presents to the clinic where you practice nursing, stating, I have a sinus infection. She is accompanied by her mother. Shonna reports her boyfriend is also sick and probably gave this to me. During her health history, Shonna’s responses to questions about school indicate that she is unhappy there. Shonna’s vital signs today are temperature, 37.8°C; respirations, 16 breaths/min; pulse, 78 beats/min; and blood pressure, 110/68 mm Hg. Physical assessment reveals forehead tenderness, head congestion, and unrelenting headache. She is otherwise healthy. Shonnas physician diagnoses a sinus infection and prescribes antibiotics. During your assessment, what topics are important to ask Shonna about? What are health promotion opportunities present for Shonna and her mother? Case Study 4: Older Adults Mr. Aurelio Martin, a 74-year-old retired pipefitter, arrives at the clinic where you practice nursing, reporting head pain after a fall. He is accompanied by his son, with whom Mr. Martin lives. During the assessment of his head, you discover marked bruising around his left eye, which is swollen shut. When asked about the fall, Mr. Martin anxiously looks at his son, who answers the question. Upon further questioning, the son continues to answer all questions, even though speech is not a problem for Mr. Martin. Before going any further, what should you do? What topics should you explore during this interview? What risks can be identified related to the relationship between Mr. Martin and his son? What factors could have caused Mr. Martins fall? Case Study 5: Male Reproductive Antwan Stewart, an 18-year-old physics major, presents at the university clinic where you practice nursing, with severe scrotal pain following a brief workout at the gym. Assessment reveals the following: temperature, 38.2°C; pulse, 128 beats/min; and BP, 156/78 mm Hg. Mr. Stewarts scrotum is swollen, extremely tender, and too painful for palpation. Nothing else is evident on examination. Mr. Stewart reports that his pain is 9 on a 0-to-10 scale. List significant assessment data. What assessment data would differentiate between epididymitis and testicular torsion? Based on the medically diagnosed condition, what treatments would you expect the physician to order? Case Study 6: Female Reproductive Jean Adano, a 53-year-old married executive, is undergoing a comprehensive health assessment at the clinic where you practice nursing. She has not seen a healthcare provider for many years and exclaims, I’ve not been myself lately! She reports moodiness, having hot flashes, and significantly decreased sexual desire in the last few months. Today, her vital signs are temperature, 36.8°C; pulse, 88 beats/min; respirations, 16 breaths/min; and blood pressure, 130/82 mm Hg. Results of her head-to-toe physical assessment are all within normal limits. Given Mrs. Adanos age and current reports, what is the most likely cause of her symptoms? What are some important topics to consider during Mrs. Adano’s health history interview? What health promotion opportunities exist for Mrs. Adano?