The readings in this unit focus on theory and practical design to create and lead adaptive organizations in complex and chaotic environments. How does theory inform leadership practice from an adaptive design perspective? What factors must leaders consider when managing change to adapt to chaotic internal and external environments? Gharajedaghi, J. (2011). Systems Thinking: Managing Chaos and Complexity: A Platform for Designing Business Architecture. Chapter 8, Formulating the Mess, pages 159179. Bernstein, M., & Linsky, M. (2016). Leading change through adaptive design. Stanford Social Innovation Review, 14(1), 4854.