Piagets Theory of Human Development.

The work is to be 6 pages with three to five sources, with in-text citations and a reference page. Based on an interview with Nathan’s mother, I will relate the different Piaget’s tasks and stages of development through which Nathan has gone through to determine his mental, physical and spiritual development. In the end, the paper will also compare the findings of the interview with the literature available on the child development to find any evidence of affirmation and disaffirmation. Literature Review Piaget’s proposed the Cognitive Development Theory of Early Childhood Experience through the basic idea that the child constructs his own knowledge, the child learns many things without the help of others and the child is inherently motivated to learn new things from the environment. In his theory, Piaget used four concepts, namely: schemata, adaptation, assimilation, and accommodation to understand the developmental stages of the child. (Berk, 2010) The first stage Schemata are the mental concepts which the child uses to understand. The second stage, Adaptation is the process in which the child mentally organizes the information received from the environment. Third stage Assimilation is the process of grasping new information as well as adding that information to the already stored knowledge. Fourth stage Accommodation is adjusting all the information through which the child can later build thoughts and build internal structures. This theory includes four stages the child passes through. The stages are the sensorimotor stage (birth- 2 years), the preoperational stage (2 – 7 years), the concrete operational stage (7 – 12 years) and the formal operational stage (12 – onwards). The stages start at the age of birth until the age of the fully matured person (Fischer, 1980). The sensorimotor stage starts at the beginning of the child until age 2. During this stage, the child tries to develop the sense of the environment. The child uses his sensory motor skills to think what the outside environment is. The child behavior has some common skills like looking, grasping and listening. According to Jean Piaget, in the stage of sensorimotor, object permanence is the very important accomplishment. The child understands that the things are present even though they are not present and this understanding of the child is known as object permanence. This stage includes six sub-stages that are characterized by their developmental process. The sub-stages are: (1) Reflexes (birth – 1 month), (2) Primary circular reactions (1-4 months), (3) Secondary circular reactions (4 -8 months), (4) Coordination for secondary circular reactions (8-12 months), (5) Tertiary circular reactions (12 – 18 months) and (6) Mental representation (18 – 24 months) (Martin, 2002). In the first substage of the sensorimotor stage, the child tries to understand the environment through the inborn reflexes. In the second substage, the child makes new schemas and coordinating sensation through which the child find pleasure. In the third substage which starts at the age of 4 – 8 months, the child intentionally repeats the events through which he can understand the outside environment. In the fourth substage which starts at age 8- 12 months, the child has shown intentional reactions, starts exploring the environment and starts recognizing some actions with its reactions.

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