Plato’s Republic

So this is two different 2 page essays. Both are about the same section in Plato’s Republic. It says to choose from the 2 options, but I need them both.I also need in-text citations from the book.Below you will find two questions to choose from. To do ‘Essay 4’ you just need to answer one of them, and it doesn’t matter which one. However, if you choose to replace your lowest essay grade, then do both of them. If you choose to do this, they are both due next Thursday; both are, as always, 2-3pp., double-spaced etc. Also, don’t submit them separately, just submit them as one document, indicating in the document the ending of one essay and the beginning of the other. As always, let me know if you have any questions.Option 1:Socrates says the oligarchic soul: “by being a thrifty worker, who satisfies only his necessary appetites, makes no other expenditures, and enslaves his other desires as vain”(554a). That is, because “what is valued is always practiced, and what isn’t valued is neglected”(551a), and because what the oligarch values is wealth, there are certain things he simply won’t do, there are certain desires he simply won’t satisfy. What are these desires, and does the oligarch not have them, or does he just suppress them? If the latter, then how does he do it? Finally, how is the democratic soul different, that is, what does the democratic soul value and what does this value allow the democratic soul to do that the oligarchic (and timocratic and aristocratic) simply won’t do? Explain your answer.Option 2:At 557c Socrates describes the Democratic city as “something multicolored”: “…it looks as though this is the finest or most beautiful of the constitutions, for, like a coat embroidered with every kind of character type, would seem to be most beautiful” [Notice that I have italicized some words in this quote. That’s a hint to read carefully. To say that something “looks as though…” or that something “seems” to be the best or most beautiful is not to say that something is the best or most beautiful].Now, just like all of the other constitutions – that is, the Aristocratic (which was discussed in Book IV the way the other constitutions are discussed in Books VIII & IX, giving an account of both the city and then the soul), Timocratic, Oligarchic and the Tyrannical – the Democratic soul is mirrored in the democratic city. So, what I want you to do is briefly describe Socrates’s account of the life of the democratic soul (not the city, the soul); that is, describe how he or she lives, what he or she spends his or her time doing, and most importantly how he or she distinguishes good from bad, just from unjust (if these distinctions are even made at all, as that is always an option too). Finally, based on your analysis, which life is just (or most just), the Aristocratic life or the Democratic life and why? [Answering this last question will require you to actually compare the two souls, which will require you to say some things about how the Aristocratic soul lives and distinguishes good from bad, just from unjust. Failing to do this would make the comparison unfair (and fairness is a part of justice right?!)] As always, explain/defend your answer.

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