Write 4 pages thesis on the topic posners terms analyzing the curriculum. For example, teachers can conduct research, introduce their research in the classrooms, share it with other teachers and after seeing the effectiveness of the research, can be supportive in making it a part of the curriculum. 2. Robert Glaser/Individually Prescribed Instruction (IPI) Robert Glaser made a curriculum by making use of the standards of RD&D model for curriculum change, which he named as Individually Prescribed Instruction (IPI). IPI can be defined as a systematic approach to learning (Posner, 1995). Glaser intended to implement the standards of the RD&D model to the whole curriculum employed by primary and secondary classes through IPI. This approach individualizes the children as the students are allowed to learn with the support of technology. Teachers and students both can assess the behavior of the student in learning and understand the curriculum. For example, students gain instructions and curriculum details with the support of computerized technology. Each of them has his own instruction to follow. 3. Collaborative Approaches as related to Curriculum Change The collaborative approaches as related to curriculum change were created after finding weaknesses in the RD&D model. The approach highlights that better teaching is based on experience and knowledge acquisition of teachers about their profession (Posner, 1995). Teachers are able o learn better by viewing other teachers teaching and sharing their notions with one another. Teachers and students should be collaborative in developing curriculums and bringing in a change in the curriculum. An example of collaborative approaches as related to curriculum change is to incorporate new and innovative materials such as computer usage in the curriculum by collecting the viewpoints of teachers and students collaboratively. Chapters 10 and 11 1. Purposes of Evaluation The purposes of evaluation sometimes disagree with one another. The academic institutions generally need evaluation data that they can reveal to the stakeholders and financers for showing the efficiency of their system (Posner, 1995). This evaluation data is provided as a source of measurement of the presentation of the academic institution for advertising purposes. In addition, the evaluation is conducted as a certified activity to assess the performance of individual educators in order to scrutinize and make better the learning strategies that they intend to provide. The profiles and yearly results of students given in newspapers and meetings for performance evaluation with the support of evaluation data are examples of purposes of evaluation. 2. Standardized Tests Standardized tests can be defined as a collection of questions with an acknowledged collection of most probably accurate answers (Posner, 1995). The standardized tests are assessments that are supervised and evaluated by following certain standards. Consistency can be found in standardized tests. Every student has to give the answers already assigned as correct answers. For example, a test in which, multiple choices are allowed with each correct answer already known to the checker. .  . .