Psychological Human Development

Human Development Name:1. Both adults on the autism spectrum and typically developing 3-year-olds often fail the Sally-Anne and Smarties tasks, but for different reasons. What are thought to be the reasons for each population?2. Why do you think the 3-year-old false belief task was more likely to lead to a type 2 error than the infant false belief task?3. Why do the infant “false belief” and “attributing agency” tasks require experimenters to use Kantian Inference to the Best Explanation? Be specific about what inferences are being made in each.4. Consider the experiment in which the adult demonstrates pushing a button with their forehead for 14 month olds. Explain why the results of this study are evidence for theory of mind at this age.5. In their study about memory, Waugh and Norman found that people remember a list of numbers equally well if they are presented quickly as slowly. A. Explain how this data helps support the decay or the interference hypotheses. B. Explain what this suggests about Peterson and Peterson’s interpretation of their results.6. What might the Shopping Cart experiment suggest about the causes of infantile amnesia?7. Give any one piece of evidence that memory is not like a video camera.8. A parent buys a bubble-maker toy that allows a 3-year-old to blow bubbles in the shape of different letters. Using what you know about dual representation, explain how this might help or hurt the child with learning to read. Why?9. What were the theoretical and empirical questions in the Shrinking Room experiment? (You can summarize the way the experiment works a little if you need to in order to answer the question, but you don’t have to.)10. Even very young children can tell when someone is just pretending. How might the visual cliff experiment help us understand how children are able to do this?

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