Quantitative Statistics

Theory Foreign aid is defined as the assistance in money that a specific country transfers to another country. Those, as mentioned above, can assume the form of a gift, loan, or grant. Foreign aids have the capacity within the context of contributing to the engagement with civil society and democratization through the provision of assistance attached with the strengthening of the executive powers, the process of election, improvement of education, and increase of the per capita income. There is less evidence on the factors affecting the promotion of foreign aid towards democratization. There is further evidence on the fact that there exist few society organizations have a direct engagement attached to the process of policy formulation and making an impact on the outcome of policy. On the other dimension, there is further less information provided within the literature review on how democratization is influenced by foreign aid. On the different aspect, there exists limited research that is attached to the relationship that exists between the civil society organization that operates in the countries that receive foreign aid. Hypotheses H0: The determinant factors contribute to democratization and the engagement and civil society engagement in receiving democratic aid.  H1: The determinant factors don’t contribute to democratization and the engagement and civil society engagement in receiving democratic aid. Unit of Analysis  The unit of analysis will be country-year of states receiving foreign aid. This unit was chosen to determine if there is a relationship between the years that states receive foreign aid and CSO participation and democratization over the same years. Independent variable Foreign Aid – https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.PC.ZS Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients CSO Strength – https://www.v-dem.net/en/data/data-version-10/ Civil Society Participation Index measures if CSOs are routinely consulted by policymakers, their involvement of people in CSOs, including women, and if legislative candidate nomination within party organization is highly decentralized or made through party primaries. Dependent variable  Democracy indicies – https://www.v-dem.net/en/data/data-version-10/The indices measure the extent that electoral, liberal, participatory, deliberative, and egalitarian democracy has been achieved. Using this information, we can measure improvement in democracy in states where more established CSOs are active. Questions: 1) Conduct a basic bivariate hypothesis test showing the relationship between your independent variable and your dependent variable. Explain why you chose the test you did, and what it shows. 2) Are there reasons this hypothesis test may not tell the whole story? What are they? Control Variables 3) Consider three to five (3-5) alternative explanations for changes in your dependent variable that could confound your explanation of interest (i.e., variables that may lead to omitted variable bias). Write these out in terms of formal null/alternative hypotheses. 4) Find data to operationalize these controls. Paste histograms/bar charts/summary statistics (as appropriate) of the relevant variables

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