Urinalysis Report (50 points) Report Due Date: October 18 at 11:59 PM Submit the report on Blackboard at Testing and Submission Center folder Urine Analysis of urine composition and properties is often used to evaluate the function of the kidneys and other organs. This procedure is called a urinalysis. A urinalysis involves three aspects: physical characteristics, chemical analysis, and microscopic examination. Physical characteristics of urine include volume, color, transparency, and odor. The chemical analysis of urine addresses the concentration of solutes such as glucose, protein, ketones, bilirubin, urobilinogen, nitrite, leukocyte esterase, and hemoglobin. The specific gravity and pH of urine are greatly influenced by the components and amounts of solutes. An examination of microscopic solids including cells, casts and crystals assist in the diagnosis of injury, various diseases, and urinary infection. This report should be considered a professional laboratory report, so avoid using idioms or layperson language in your report. Be creative and tell what you want to say in a clear and precise manner. You may start with a short introduction, but do not spend too much on the introduction, and try to focus on the actual assays in your report. If your statements are inaccurate or unclear, you will lose points. How many points you may ask? The answer depends on the inaccuracy of the statement. I will evaluate each case separately when I am grading your report. There is NO specific format for the laboratory report; however, the report must include the description of every chemical assay in the routine urinalysis including the confirmatory assays. Provide a BRIEF description of each test and its limitations. Indicate what abnormal 1 results may suggest and whether there are any interfering substances that may mislead the investigators. Discuss how each assay may reflect a patients health conditions. You will lose points for weak diction and grammar, so make sure to review and edit your final report before submission. Once submitted, you cannot retract the report and will be graded accordingly. The report should not exceed a maximum of 5 pages (not including the title page and references). For your report, the reference list should appear immediately following the report text (beginning on a new page; not included in 5-page maximum). References should contain complete titles and inclusive page numbers and should be numbered in chronological order as they appear in the manuscript. I do not have any preferences for the format of the references (e.g. APA or MLA, …) as long as I can quickly find the exact original reference. If your references are inaccurate or unclear, you will lose major points. If you plagiarize, the report will receive zero points, but I will also dismiss you from the course. You are an adult and responsible for your own actions, so think about your action before you do it. Maximum of 5 pages (single space). 10 points for the quality of written report (e.g. diction, grammar, fluidity). 40 points for accuracy and comprehensive response to the assignment. Urinalysis Procedure Physical Characteristics The color and appearance of the urine specimen are recorded. Usual colors are colorless, straw, yellow, amber; less commonly pink, red, brown. Usual appearances (opacity) are clear or hazy; less commonly turbid, cloudy, and opaque, unless the specimen has remained at room or refrigerated temperatures. Chemical Analysis: 1. The common chemical testing of urine utilizes commercial disposable test strips. The test strips test for Glucose, Bilirubin, Ketone, Specific Gravity, Blood, pH, Protein, Urobilinogen, Nitrite, and Leukocyte Esterase. The result of this testing is regarded as qualitatively (semi-quantitative). 2. A fresh urine specimen is collected in a clean, dry container. A Multistix strip is briefly immersed in the urine specimen, covering all reagent areas. 3. The edge of the Multistix strip is run against the rim of the urine container to remove excess urine. The strip is held in a horizontal position. 4. Time for 30 seconds and then compare the reaction colors of the test areas with those on the strip container, starting with glucose. Make sure that the test strip is properly aligned so that the test area is opposite the correct part of the color chart. The white holding strip should be held towards the top of the strip container. 5. The reactions are read visually. The strip test areas are compared to those on the Multistix color chart at the specified times. The results are recorded, and the strip is discarded. Confirmatory Assays 1. We can perform confirmatory assays for protein, ketones, and reducing substances. Why do we perform these assays? What information is provided by these assays? Make sure to address this question in your report. 2. We can measure specific gravity for the urine specimen using a refractometer. Does the refractometer result always match the multistix strip? What may be the reason for discrepancies? Make sure to address this issue in the final report. 3. View images of cells, crystals, and casts in the presentations that are provided for you in module 2. 3 Caution: Reducing sugar confirmatory test (Clinitest) is an exothermic chemical reaction that will generate heat. Never hold the tube in your hands while performing the assay. Summary Your final report (50 points) needs to include the description of every chemical assay in the routine urinalysis which includes the confirmatory assays. Provide a BRIEF description of each test and its limitations including the interfering substances. Indicate what any abnormal results may suggest and discuss how each assay may reflect a patients health conditions.